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This is an ARMI Product. Timing of first and last calls and median calling peaks for Pseudacris crucifer, and of the first call for Hyla chrysoscelis/versicolor, at six wetlands in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway from 2008-2012
Authors: Sadinski W, Roth M | Date: 2018-09-06 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7CR5SBH.
To better understand relations of annual calling phenophases for Pseudacris crucifer, and of the first calls of the season for Hyla chrysoscelis/versicolor, to the timing of the start of the calling season, we compared these dynamics for six wetlands in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway from 2008 to 2012. We installed an acoustic recorder at each site prior to the start of each calling season and programmed it to record for five minutes at the top of every hour until late summer. We then used the Songscape option in Songscope software to generate annual summaries of all acoustic files recorded at each site. We created contour plots of the summarized median dB values across bandwidths in each recording and then assessed individual calls and calling peaks by visually examining these plots to identify first (and last) calls via the unique call signatures for these two species. We examined individual five-minute recordings aurally and visually as necessary when sound images represented on the contour plots were confounded and to ensure that the calling peaks described below were dates when calling activity was relatively intense. We also determined the daily median dB levels for frequencies across 2900 to 3200 Hz during 2100 to 2300 h, the bandwidth that typically encompassed the primary energy peak in P. crucifer calls and a time period during which P. crucifer typically called most consistently throughout their calling season. We did this for each day from the date when P. crucifer first called during each year to the date when they last called during each year. Because calling activity could vary from one hour to the next, we integrated the area under the curve for the daily median dB levels from 2900 to 3200 Hz during 2100 to 2300 h. We removed dates when overlapping sounds from storms or other sources rendered comparisons to calls of P. crucifer inaccurate. We used the resultant set of integrands to represent the relative sound intensity (as an indicator of calling activity) for P. crucifer across those hours for each date. We then used these integrands to determine the three highest peak calling dates for this species and used the median of those three dates as the overall median peak date for each site in each year.

This is an ARMI Product. The eight-day interval during which amphibians first called annually at individual study wetlands across four study areas.
Authors: Sadinski W, Roth M | Date: 2018-09-06 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7CR5SBH
To help determine when winter conditions were changing to spring conditions annually in our four study areas, we determined the first eight-day interval (in accordance with the scale limitations of satellite data we used to assess the presence of snow) during which the first amphibian of the season called at each of our study wetlands in those areas. To do this, we examined contour plots of summaries of all the acoustic data we collected at that site in a given year to identify the unique call signatures of individual amphibian species by date and time. When necessary due to potential confounding on a contour plot, we also examined relevant individual five-minute recordings aurally and visually to confirm whether a call occurred. When we confirmed the date of the first call we recorded in a given season, we identified the eight-day interval in which that date fell, with the first such interval beginning on January 1 of each year.

This is an ARMI Product. Seasonal median daily water depths for study wetlands in the Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge, the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, the North Temperate Lakes Long-term Research area, and the Upper Mississippi River study area from 2008-2012
Authors: Sadinski W, Roth M | Date: 2018-09-06 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7CR5SBH.
To relate water levels in our study wetlands to temperature, precipitation, wetland water depth, and amphibian calling activity, we installed one pressure logger in the deepest spot we could find in each wetland. Soon after thawing conditions allowed, we drove a plastic pipe (anchor pipe) into the sediments at the deepest location and secured another pipe to it that contained one pressure logger (Global Water Model 14 and 15 [College Station, TX, USA] or Onset Computer Corporation Model U20-001-04 [Bourne, MA, USA]) suspended approximately 2.5 cm above the sediments. We installed additional individual pressure loggers in the upper part of the logger pipes (in air) at select locations to measure barometric pressure for calibrating the submerged loggers’ readings. We measured pressure once per hour and used software supplied by the logger manufacturers to upload and convert data to depth at the end of each season.

This is an ARMI Product. Daily calling activity for Pseudacris crucifer at site SC4DAI2 in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway from 2008 to 2012, as indicated by the results of integrating daily median dB values across 2900 to 3200 Hz and 2100 to 2300 h
Authors: Sadinski W, Roth M | Date: 2018-09-06 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey data release, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7CR5SBH
To describe calling activity of Pseudacris crucifer in relation to temperature, precipitation, and wetland water levels, we programmed an acoustic recorder (Wildlife Acoustics) to sample seasonal amphibian calls remotely at study site SC4DAI2 in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway from 2008 to 2012. We programmed the recorder to sample for five minutes at the top of every hour of every day from late winter/early spring through late summer. We used the Songscape option in Songscope software to generate annual summaries of all of our acoustic samples from SC4DAI2. These summaries included a median dB level for each prescribed frequency within each recording. Pseudacris crucifer, the spring peeper, inhabited SC4DAI2 and typically called over several weeks each year, depending upon weather conditions and surface-water availability. Most of the energy in their individual calls occurred between 2900 and 3200 Hz, which provided a unique acoustic signature compared with the other anurans that called from the site. We used this information as part of a case study to better understand how the daily calling activity of P. crucifer varied relative to air temperature, precipitation, and water depth at SC4DAI2 across years. We first determined the daily median dB levels for frequencies across 2900 to 3200 Hz during 2100 to 2300 h, a time period during which P. crucifer typically called throughout their calling season. We did this for each day from the date when P. crucifer first called each year to the date when they last called each year and considered any day in this range as one during which they potentially could call. Because calling activity could vary from one hour to the next, we integrated the area under the curve for the daily median dB levels from 2900 to 3200 Hz during 2100 to 2300 h. We removed dates when overlapping sounds from storms or other sources rendered comparisons to calls of P. crucifer inaccurate. We used the resultant set of integrands to represent the relative sound intensity (as an indicator of calling activity) for P. crucifer across those hours for each date. Those integrands are contained in this data set. These data enabled us to then compare daily integrand values with daily measurements of air temperature, precipitation totals, and water depth.

This is an ARMI Product. Challenges in complementing data from ground-based sensors with satellite-derived products to measure ecological changes in relation to climate?lessons from temperate wetland-upland landscapes
Authors: Gallant AL, Sadinski W, Brown JF, Senay GB, Roth MR | Date: 2018-03-16 | Outlet: Sensors 18(3)880 | Format: URL
Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km2 landscape blocks. At the block scale, we used evapotranspiration and vegetation greenness as remotely sensed proxies for water availability and to estimate seasonal photosynthetic activity. We used sensors on the ground to coincidentally measure surface-water availability and amphibian calling activity at individual wetlands within blocks. Responses of landscape blocks generally paralleled changes in conditions measured on the ground, but the latter were more dynamic, and changes in ecological conditions on the ground that were critical for biota were not always apparent in measurements of related parameters in blocks. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of decisions and assumptions we made in applying the remotely sensed data for the assessment and the value of integrating observations across scales, sensors, and disciplines.

This is an ARMI Product. Multi-year data from satellite- and ground-based sensors show details and scale matter in assessing climate's effects on wetland surface water, amphibians, and landscape conditions
Authors: Sadinski W, Gallant AL, Roth M, Brown J, Senay G, Brininger W, Jones PM, Stoker J | Date: 2018-09-07 | Outlet: PLoS ONE 13(9): e0201951 | Format: URL
Long-term, interdisciplinary studies of relations between climate and ecological conditions on wetland-upland landscapes have been lacking, especially studies integrated across scales meaningful for adaptive resource management. We collected data in situ at individual wetlands, and via satellite for surrounding 4-km2 landscape blocks, to assess relations between annual weather dynamics, snow duration, phenology, wetland surface-water availability, amphibian presence and calling activity, greenness, and evapotranspiration in four U.S. conservation areas from 2008 to 2012. Amid recent decades of relatively warm growing seasons, 2012 and 2010 were the first and second warmest seasons, respectively, dating back to 1895. Accordingly, we observed the earliest starts of springtime biological activity during those two years. In all years, early-season amphibians first called soon after daily mean air temperatures were ? 0°C and snow had mostly melted. Similarly, satellite-based indicators suggested seasonal leaf-out happened soon after snowmelt and temperature thresholds for plant growth had occurred. Daily fluctuations in weather and water levels were related to amphibian calling activity, including decoupling the timing of the onset of calling at the start of season from the onset of calling events later in the season. Within-season variation in temperature and precipitation also was related to vegetation greenness and evapotranspiration, but more at monthly and seasonal scales. Wetland water levels were moderately to strongly associated with precipitation and early or intermittent wetland drying likely reduced amphibian reproduction success in some years, even though Pseudacris crucifer occupied sites at consistently high levels. Notably, satellite-based indicators of landscape water availability did not suggest such consequential, intra-seasonal variability in wetland surface-water availability. Our cross-disciplinary data show how temperature and precipitation interacted to affect key ecological relations and outcomes on our study landscapes. These results demonstrate the value of multi-year studies and the importance of scale for understanding actual climate-related effects in these areas.

 
This is an ARMI Product. The relative efficiency of native and non-native aquatic species as predators of potential disease vectors: Invasive crayfish enhance the survival of mosquitoes
Authors: Bucciarelli G, Suh D, Davis A, Sharpton D, Roberts D, Shaffer HB, Fisher RN, Kats L | Date: 2018-08-06 | Outlet: Conservation Biology | Format: .PDF
The introductions of non-native predators often reduce biodiversity and affect natural predator-prey relationships. However, non-native predators may increase the abundance of potential disease vectors (e.g. mosquitoes) indirectly through competition or predation cascades. The Santa Monica
Mountains, situated in a global biodiversity hotspot, is an area of conservation concern due to climate change, urbanization, and the introduction of non-native species. We examined the effect that non-native crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) have on an existing native predator, dragonfly nymphs (Aeshna sp.) and their mosquito larvae (Anopheles sp.) prey. We used laboratory experiments to compare the predation efficiency of both predators, separately and together, and field data on counts of dragonfly nymphs and mosquito larvae sampled from 13 local streams. We predicted a lower predation efficiency of crayfish compared to native dragonfly nymphs as well as a reduced efficiency of dragonfly nymphs in the presence of crayfish. Dragonfly nymphs were an order of magnitude more efficient mosquito predators compared to crayfish and dragonfly
nymphs suffered reduced efficiency in the presence of crayfish. Analyses of field count data showed that populations of dragonfly nymphs and mosquito larvae were strongly correlated with crayfish presence in streams, such that sites with crayfish tended to have fewer dragonfly
nymphs and more mosquito larvae. Under natural conditions, it is likely that crayfish reduce the abundance of dragonfly nymphs and their predation efficiency, and thereby, directly and indirectly, lead to higher mosquito populations and a loss of ecosystem services related to disease vector control.

This is an ARMI Product. Regional variation in drivers of connectivity for two frog species (Rana pretiosa and R. luteiventris) from the U.S. Pacific Northwest
Authors: Robertson JM, Murphy MA, Pearl CA, Adams MJ, P?ez-Vacas MI, Haig SM, Pilliod DS, Storfer A, Funk WC | Date: 2018-07-16 | Outlet: Molecular Ecology | Format: .PDF
Comparative landscape genetics has uncovered high levels of variability in which landscape factors affect connectivity among species and regions. However, the relative importance of species traits vs. environmental variation for predicting landscape patterns of connectivity is unresolved. We provide a test with a landscape genetics study of two sister taxa of frogs, the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) and the Columbia spotted frog (R. luteiventris) in Oregon and Idaho, USA. Rana pretiosa is relatively more dependent on moisture for dispersal than R. luteiventris, so if species traits influence connectivity, we predicted that connectivity among R. pretiosa populations would be more positively associated with moisture than R. luteiventris. However, if environmental differences are important drivers of gene flow, we predicted that connectivity would be more positively related to moisture in arid regions. We tested these predictions using eight microsatellite loci and gravity models in two R. pretiosa regions and four R. luteiventris regions (n = 1,168 frogs). In R. pretiosa, but not R. luteiventris, connectivity was positively related to mean annual precipitation, supporting our first prediction. In contrast, connectivity was not more positively related to moisture in more arid regions. Various temperature metrics were important predictors for both species and in all regions, but the directionality of their effects varied. Therefore, the pattern of variation in drivers of connectivity was consistent with predictions based on species traits rather than on environmental variation.

This is an ARMI Product. Pre-publication communication of research results
Authors: Adams MJ, Harris RN, Grant EHC, Gray MJ, Hopkins MC, Iverson SA, Likens R, Mandica M, Olson DH, Shepack A, Waddle H | Date: 2018-08-11 | Outlet: EcoHealth | Format: .PDF
Until publication, communication of provisional scientific findings beyond participants in the study is typically limited. This practice helps assure scientific integrity. However, a dilemma arises when a provisional finding has urgent societal consequences that may be exacerbated by delay. This dilemma may be particularly pronounced when a discovery concerns wildlife health, which could have implications for conservation, public health, or domestic animal health. Eleven researchers suggest that common concerns about directed prepublication communication largely stem from misperceptions and that none should cause a delay in the communication of time-sensitive provisional findings to appropriate authorities. Instead, they suggest that rapid communication of a provisional discovery could be beneficial, such as in the example they use involving the potential discovery of the amphibian fungal pathogen Bsal that is currently causing salamander die-offs in Europe.

This is an ARMI Product. Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, Pesticides, and other Bioactive Contaminants in Water, Sediment, and Tissue from Rocky Mountain National Park, 2012-2013
Authors: Battaglin W, Bradley P, Iwanowicz L, Journey C, Blazer V | Date: 2018-06-05 | Outlet: Science of the Total Environment 643:651-673 | Format: .PDF
Pharmaceuticals, hormones, pesticides, and other bioactive contaminants (BCs) are commonly detected in surface water and bed sediment in urban and suburban areas, but these contaminants are understudied in remote locations. In Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, BCs may threaten the reproductive success and survival of native aquatic species, benthic communities, and pelagic food webs. In 2012-2013, 67 water, 57 sediment, 63 fish, 10 frog, and 12 quality-control samples (8 water and 4 sediment) were collected from 20 sites in RMNP. Samples were analyzed for 369 parameters including 149 pharmaceuticals, 22 hormones, 137 pesticides, and 61 other chemicals or conditions to provide a representative assessment of BC occurrence within RMNP. Results indicate that BCs were detected in water and/or sediment from both remote and more accessible locations in RMNP. The most commonly detected BCs in water were caffeine, camphor, para-cresol, and DEET; and the most commonly detected BCs in sediment were indole, 3-methyl-1H-indole, para-cresol, and 2,6-dimethyl-naphthalene. Some detected contaminants, including carbaryl, caffeine, and oxycodone, are clearly attributable to direct local human input, whereas others may be transported into the park atmospherically (e.g., atrazine) or have local natural sources (e.g., para-cresol). One or more pharmaceuticals were detected in at least 1 sample from 15 of 20 sites. Most of the 29 detected pharmaceuticals are excreted primarily in human urine, not feces. Elevated net estrogenicity was observed in 18% of water samples, and elevated vitellogenin in blood was observed in 12% of male trout, both evidence of potential endocrine disruption. Hormone concentrations in sediment tended to be greater than concentrations in water. Most BCs were observed at concentrations below those not expected to pose adverse effects to aquatic life. Results indicate that even in remote locations aquatic wildlife can be exposed to pharmaceuticals, hormones, pesticides, and other bioactive contaminants.