ARMI conducts research on the ecology of invasives, their impacts on native species, and how invasive species can be reduced or eradicated. Habitat used by amphibians has been exposed to many types of invasives through deliberate or accidental introductions. For example, sport fish deliberately introduced to ponds and streams in the western US that were formerly fishless, have been associated with the loss of amphibians in those water bodies. In another example, the American bullfrog of the Eastern US was introduced into the Western US through a combination of introductions into ponds for bait, and escapes from frog farms. The American bullfrog has been a relentless predator of several species already in conservation trouble in the Western US.
What types of problems do invasive species cause?
Some species harm native species directly by preying on them or competing with them for resources, and some modify or destroy the habitat used by native species.
Where do invasive species come from?
Some come from deliberate introductions such as biological control, stocking for hunting, fishing, or spreading bait species. Some are accidental escapes from pet stores, farming/aquaculture facilities, and ornamental gardens. Some animals are released by pet owners or teaching labs. Some species hitchhike with materials otherwise deliberately moved such as garden plants, ballast water, boats and nets.
Terms Related to Invasive Species
Invasive species: Plant, animal or pathogen that is not native to an area, and "whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health." [US Executive Order 13112. 1999]
Injurious Wildlife (defined by Lacey Act) - Mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, crustaceans, mollusks and their offspring or gametes that are injurious to the interests of human beings, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, wildlife or wildlife resources of the United States. Plants and organisms other than those listed above cannot be listed as injurious wildlife. http://www.fws.gov/fisheries/ans/pdf_files/InjuriousWildlifeFactSheet2007.pdf
Nonindigenous species: Any species or other viable biological material that enters an ecosystem beyond its historic range, including any such organism transferred from one country into another. (Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990) http://anstaskforce.gov/Documents/nanpca90.pdf
Aquatic nuisance species: A nonindigenous species that threatens the diversity or abundance of native species or the ecological stability of infested waters, or commercial, agricultural, aquacultural or recreational activities dependent on such waters. (Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990) http://anstaskforce.gov/Documents/nanpca90.pdf
Invasive Species - ARMI Papers & Reports
Data Release Calculations of BioLake climate data
These BioLake raster data provide global estimates (~10.0 x 12.4 km resolution) of twelve bioclimatic variables based on estimated lake temperature. Eleven of these twelve variables (BioLake01 - BioLake11) are estimated for each of three lake strata: lake mix (surface) layer, lake bottom, and total lake water column. These eleven variables correspond to CHELSA (Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas) bioclimatic variables BIO1 - BIO11, except that these BioLake variables are based on lake water temperature and CHELSA BIO1 - BIO11 variables are based on air temperature. CHELSA BIO is also calculated a finer spatial resolution (~1 x 1 km). The twelfth variable (BioLake20; months with non-zero ice cover) does not correspond to any CHELSA bioclimatic variable. The data are supplied as a multi-layer raster (.grd) file in the World Mollweide projection, accompanied by a header file (.gri) with layer names.
For BioLake layer download, see https://doi.org/10.5066/P96QLN5Y
Data Release BioLake bioclimatic variables based on ERA5-Land lake temperature estimates 1991-2020
Papers & Reports Empirical evidence for effects of invasive American Bullfrogs on occurrence of native amphibians and emerging pathogens
threats to biodiversity. American Bullfrogs (Rana [Lithobates] catesbeiana),
which have been introduced to many parts of the world, are often linked with
declines in native amphibians via predation and the spread of emerging pathogens
such as amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd])
and ranaviruses. Although many studies have investigated the potential role of
bullfrogs in the decline of native amphibians, analyses that account for shared
habitat affinities and imperfect detection have found limited support for
clear effects. Similarly, the role of bullfrogs in shaping the patch-level distribution
of pathogens is unclear. We used eDNA methods to sample 233 sites in the southwestern USA and Sonora, Mexico (2016–2018) to estimate how
the presence of bullfrogs affects the occurrence of four native amphibians,
Bd, and ranaviruses. Based on two-species, dominant-subordinate occupancy
models fitted in a Bayesian context, federally threatened Chiricahua Leopard
Frogs (Rana chiricahuensis) and Western Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma
mavortium) were eight times (32% vs. 4%) and two times (36% vs. 18%), respectively,
less likely to occur at sites where bullfrogs occurred. Evidence for the
negative effects of bullfrogs on Lowland Leopard Frogs (Rana yavapaiensis)
and Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) was less clear, possibly because of
smaller numbers of sites where these native species still occurred and because
bullfrogs often occur at lower densities in streams, the primary habitat for
Lowland Leopard Frogs. At the community level, Bd was most likely to occur
where bullfrogs co-occurred with native amphibians, which could increase the
risk to native species. Ranaviruses were estimated to occur at 33% of bullfrogonly
sites, 10% of sites where bullfrogs and native amphibians co-occurred,
and only 3% of sites where only native amphibians occurred. Of the 85 sites
where we did not detect any of the five target amphibian species, we also did
not detect Bd or ranaviruses; this suggests other hosts do not drive the distribution
of these pathogens in our study area. Our results provide landscape-scale
evidence that bullfrogs reduce the occurrence of native amphibians and
increase the occurrence of pathogens, information that can clarify risks and
aid the prioritization of conservation actions.
View All Data Releases on Invasive Species
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