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766 record(s) found.

Papers & Reports Late-season movement and habitat use by Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa in Oregon, USA
Authors: Chris A Pearl; B McCreary; Jennifer C Rowe; Michael J Adams
Date: 2018-09-27 | Outlet: Copeia
Many amphibians use multiple habitats across seasons. Information on seasonal habitat use, movement between seasonal habitat types, and habitats that may be particularly valuable is important to conservation and management. We used radio-telemetry to study late- season movement and habitat use by Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) at 9 sites from 4 populations along the Cascade Mountains in Oregon. Movement rates declined with date and were the lowest at the end of tracking in December and January. Frogs across our sites used vegetated shallows in late summer and early fall. In fall, frogs used a range of habitat types, and at several sites moved to specialized distinctive habitats such as springs, interstices in lava rock, and semi-terrestrial beaver channels. Distance between first and last tracking location was <250 m for 84.5% (49/58) of frogs, ranged up to 1145 m, and was greater for frogs in ditch habitats than those not in ditches. DistinctiveSpecialized features like springs or semi-terrestrial retreats can host multiple frogs and may represent particularly valuable wintering habitat for R. pretiosa in some sites in their Oregon range.
Authors: P E Howell; Brent H Sigafus; Blake R Hossack; Erin Muths
Outlet: Southwestern Naturalist 64:69-72
Invasive species are a major threat to the persistence of native species, particularly in systems where ephemeral aquatic habitats have been converted to or replaced by permanent water and predators such as fish have been introduced. Within the Altar Valley, Arizona, USA, the invasive American bullfrog (Lithobates [=Rana] catesbeianus) has been successfully eradicated to help recover Chiricahua leopard frogs (Lithobates chiricahuensis). However, other non-native predators including sunfish (Lepomis spp) are present in some permanent water bodies. During four consecutive years (2014-2017) we detected both the federally-threatened Chiricahua leopard frog and sunfish at one permanent water body in the Altar Valley. This suggests that despite the potential negative effect of predatory fish on amphibians, there may be conditions where the Chiricahua leopard frog may be able to co-occur with this non-native predator. A better understanding of rare situations of co-occurrence with non-native predators may contribute to our understanding of why co-occurrence happens in some but not all systems and whether conservation strategies can be developed in situations where complete eradication of non-native predators is infeasible.
Papers & Reports Twenty-nine years of population dynamics in a small-bodied montane amphibian
Authors: Erin Muths; R D Scherer; Staci M Amburgey; P S Corn
Outlet: Ecosphere
Identifying population declines before they reach crisis proportions is imperative given the current global decline in vertebrate fauna and the associated challenges and expense of recovery. Understanding life-histories and how the environment influences demography are critical aspects of this challenge, as is determining the biological relevance of covariates that are best supported by data. We used 29 years of data on chorus frogs at two sites to estimate demographic parameters, examine life-history, assess weather-related covariates, and determine the magnitude of process variation in target parameters. Average estimates of survival probabilities were 0.51 (SE=0.04) and 0.43 (SE=0.04), and average estimates of recruitment probabilities were 0.64 (SE=0.07) and 0.44 (SE=0.04). Process variation accounted for &#61619; 76% of the total temporal variation in both parameters at one pond and in survival probability alone at the other, suggesting that the covariates in our top models were explaining predominantly process rather than sampling variation. Estimates of population growth rates indicated a declining population at one pond (i.e., negative population growth rates in 15 of 18 years) and comparisons with historical estimates suggested declines in survival probability at the other. The amount of deviance explained was low, providing little support for the influence of covariates on target parameters, despite model selection support. Synthesis and applications: This analysis illustrates the value of disentangling components of variance when assessing demographic drivers and highlights the need for adequate demographic information in assigning conservation labels.
Papers & Reports The relative efficiency of native and non-native aquatic species as predators of potential disease vectors: Invasive crayfish enhance the survival of mosquitoes
Authors: G Bucciarelli; D Suh; A Davis; D Sharpton; D Roberts; H B Shaffer; Robert N Fisher; L Kats
Date: 2018-08-06 | Outlet: Conservation Biology
The introductions of non-native predators often reduce biodiversity and affect natural predator-prey relationships. However, non-native predators may increase the abundance of potential disease vectors (e.g. mosquitoes) indirectly through competition or predation cascades. The Santa Monica
Mountains, situated in a global biodiversity hotspot, is an area of conservation concern due to climate change, urbanization, and the introduction of non-native species. We examined the effect that non-native crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) have on an existing native predator, dragonfly nymphs (Aeshna sp.) and their mosquito larvae (Anopheles sp.) prey. We used laboratory experiments to compare the predation efficiency of both predators, separately and together, and field data on counts of dragonfly nymphs and mosquito larvae sampled from 13 local streams. We predicted a lower predation efficiency of crayfish compared to native dragonfly nymphs as well as a reduced efficiency of dragonfly nymphs in the presence of crayfish. Dragonfly nymphs were an order of magnitude more efficient mosquito predators compared to crayfish and dragonfly
nymphs suffered reduced efficiency in the presence of crayfish. Analyses of field count data showed that populations of dragonfly nymphs and mosquito larvae were strongly correlated with crayfish presence in streams, such that sites with crayfish tended to have fewer dragonfly
nymphs and more mosquito larvae. Under natural conditions, it is likely that crayfish reduce the abundance of dragonfly nymphs and their predation efficiency, and thereby, directly and indirectly, lead to higher mosquito populations and a loss of ecosystem services related to disease vector control.
Papers & Reports Regional variation in drivers of connectivity for two frog species (Rana pretiosa and R. luteiventris) from the U.S. Pacific Northwest
Authors: Jeanne M Robertson; M A Murphy; Chris A Pearl; Michael J Adams; M I Páez-Vacas; S M Haig; David S Pilliod; A Storfer; W C Funk
Date: 2018-07-16 | Outlet: Molecular Ecology
Comparative landscape genetics has uncovered high levels of variability in which landscape factors affect connectivity among species and regions. However, the relative importance of species traits vs. environmental variation for predicting landscape patterns of connectivity is unresolved. We provide a test with a landscape genetics study of two sister taxa of frogs, the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) and the Columbia spotted frog (R. luteiventris) in Oregon and Idaho, USA. Rana pretiosa is relatively more dependent on moisture for dispersal than R. luteiventris, so if species traits influence connectivity, we predicted that connectivity among R. pretiosa populations would be more positively associated with moisture than R. luteiventris. However, if environmental differences are important drivers of gene flow, we predicted that connectivity would be more positively related to moisture in arid regions. We tested these predictions using eight microsatellite loci and gravity models in two R. pretiosa regions and four R. luteiventris regions (n = 1,168 frogs). In R. pretiosa, but not R. luteiventris, connectivity was positively related to mean annual precipitation, supporting our first prediction. In contrast, connectivity was not more positively related to moisture in more arid regions. Various temperature metrics were important predictors for both species and in all regions, but the directionality of their effects varied. Therefore, the pattern of variation in drivers of connectivity was consistent with predictions based on species traits rather than on environmental variation.
Papers & Reports Pre-publication communication of research results
Authors: Michael J Adams; Reid N Harris; Evan HC Grant; M J Gray; M C Hopkins; S A Iverson; R Likens; Mark Mandica; Deanna H Olson; A Shepack; J Hardin Waddle
Date: 2018-08-11 | Outlet: EcoHealth
Until publication, communication of provisional scientific findings beyond participants in the study is typically limited. This practice helps assure scientific integrity. However, a dilemma arises when a provisional finding has urgent societal consequences that may be exacerbated by delay. This dilemma may be particularly pronounced when a discovery concerns wildlife health, which could have implications for conservation, public health, or domestic animal health. Eleven researchers suggest that common concerns about directed prepublication communication largely stem from misperceptions and that none should cause a delay in the communication of time-sensitive provisional findings to appropriate authorities. Instead, they suggest that rapid communication of a provisional discovery could be beneficial, such as in the example they use involving the potential discovery of the amphibian fungal pathogen Bsal that is currently causing salamander die-offs in Europe.
Papers & Reports Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, Pesticides, and other Bioactive Contaminants in Water, Sediment, and Tissue from Rocky Mountain National Park, 2012-2013
Authors: William A Battaglin; Paul M Bradley; L Iwanowicz; Celeste A Journey; Vicki S Blazer
Date: 2018-06-05 | Outlet: Science of the Total Environment 643:651-673
Pharmaceuticals, hormones, pesticides, and other bioactive contaminants (BCs) are commonly detected in surface water and bed sediment in urban and suburban areas, but these contaminants are understudied in remote locations. In Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, BCs may threaten the reproductive success and survival of native aquatic species, benthic communities, and pelagic food webs. In 2012-2013, 67 water, 57 sediment, 63 fish, 10 frog, and 12 quality-control samples (8 water and 4 sediment) were collected from 20 sites in RMNP. Samples were analyzed for 369 parameters including 149 pharmaceuticals, 22 hormones, 137 pesticides, and 61 other chemicals or conditions to provide a representative assessment of BC occurrence within RMNP. Results indicate that BCs were detected in water and/or sediment from both remote and more accessible locations in RMNP. The most commonly detected BCs in water were caffeine, camphor, para-cresol, and DEET; and the most commonly detected BCs in sediment were indole, 3-methyl-1H-indole, para-cresol, and 2,6-dimethyl-naphthalene. Some detected contaminants, including carbaryl, caffeine, and oxycodone, are clearly attributable to direct local human input, whereas others may be transported into the park atmospherically (e.g., atrazine) or have local natural sources (e.g., para-cresol). One or more pharmaceuticals were detected in at least 1 sample from 15 of 20 sites. Most of the 29 detected pharmaceuticals are excreted primarily in human urine, not feces. Elevated net estrogenicity was observed in 18% of water samples, and elevated vitellogenin in blood was observed in 12% of male trout, both evidence of potential endocrine disruption. Hormone concentrations in sediment tended to be greater than concentrations in water. Most BCs were observed at concentrations below those not expected to pose adverse effects to aquatic life. Results indicate that even in remote locations aquatic wildlife can be exposed to pharmaceuticals, hormones, pesticides, and other bioactive contaminants.
Papers & Reports Quantifying climate sensitivity and climate driven change in North American amphibian communities
Authors: David AW Miller; Evan HC Grant; Erin Muths; Staci M Amburgey; Michael J Adams; M B Joseph; J Hardin Waddle; P TJ Johnson; Maureen E Ryan; Benedikt R Schmidt; Daniel L Calhoun; Courtney L Davis; Robert N Fisher; D E Green; Blake R Hossack; Tracy A. Rittenhouse; Susan C Walls; Larissa L Bailey; Sam S Cruickshank; Gary M Fellers; Thomas A Gorman; C A Haas; Ward Hughson; David S Pilliod; S J Price; Andrew M Ray; W J Sadinski; D Saenz; William J Barichivich; Adrianne B Brand; Cheryl S Brehme; R G Dagit; Katy S Delaney; Brad M Glorioso; L B Kats; Patrick M Kleeman; Chris A Pearl; Carlton J Rochester; Seth PD Riley; Mark F Roth; Brent H Sigafus
Date: 2018-08 | Outlet: Nature Communications
We quantified the response of amphibian communities to climatic variability across the United States and Canada using more than 500,000 observations for 81 species across 86 study areas. We estimated the relationships between annual variation in climate variables and local colonization and persistence probabilities across more than 5000 surveyed sites. This allowed us to estimate sensitivity to change in five climate variables. Climate sensitivity differs greatly among eco-regions and depends on local climate, species life-history, and phylogeny. Local species richness was especially sensitive to changes in water availability during breeding and changes in winter temperature. These results allowed us to ask whether changing climate explains strong overall rates of decline in species richness observed in our data set. We found that recent change in the climate variables we measured does not explain why North American amphibian richness is rapidly declining, but does explain why some populations decline faster than others.&#8195;
Papers & Reports Associations between environmental pollutants and larval amphibians in wetlands contaminated by energy-related brines are potentially mediated by feeding traits
Authors: K L Smalling; Chauncey W Anderson; R K Honeycutt; I M Cozzarelli,; Todd Preston; Blake R Hossack
Date: 2019-02-22 | Outlet: Environmental Pollution
Energy production in the Williston Basin, located in the Prairie Pothole Region of central North America, has increased rapidly over the last several decades. Advances in disposal practices of saline wastewaters (brines) co-produced during energy production have reduced ecological risks, but spills still occur often and legacy practices of releasing brines into the environment caused persistent salinization in many areas. Aside from sodium and chloride, these brines contain elevated concentrations of heavy metals, ammonium, volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons and radionuclides. Amphibians are especially sensitive to chloride but interactions among other environmental pollutants are possible wetlands contaminated by brines. We collected bed sediment and larval amphibians (Ambystoma mavortium, Lithobates pipiens and Pseudacris maculata) from wetlands in Montana and North Dakota representing a range of brine contamination history and severity to determine if contamination was associated with metal concentrations in sediments and if metal accumulation in tissues varied by species and feeding traits. Brine contamination was positively associated with the concentrations of sodium and strontium in sediments and negatively correlated with mercury. However, concentrations of several metals were correlated with differences in feeding traits (grazers vs. predators), which suggests frequent contact with the sediments could lead to greater ingestion of metal-laden materials. Although many of these metals may not be directly linked with energy development, the potential additive or synergistic effects of exposure along with elevated chloride from brines could have important consequences for aquatic organisms. To effectively manage amphibian populations in wetlands contaminated by saline wastewaters we need a more robust understanding of how life history traits, species-specific susceptibilities and the physical-chemical properties of metals co-occurring in wetland sediments interact with other stressors like chloride and wetland drying.
Papers & Reports Exploring the amphibian exposome in an agricultural landscape using telemetry and passive sampling
Authors: J E Swanson; Erin Muths; Clay L Pierce; S Dinsmore; M Vandever; Michelle L Hladik; K L Smalling
Date: 2018-07-03 | Outlet: Scientific Reports (2018) 8:10045
This is the first field study of its kind to combine radio telemetry, passive samplers, and pesticide accumulation in tissues to characterize the amphibian exposome as it relates to pesticides. Understanding how habitat drives exposure in individuals (i.e., their exposome), and how that relates to individual health is critical to managing species in an agricultural landscape where pesticide exposure is likely. We followed 72 northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) in two agricultural wetlands for insight into where and when individuals are at high risk of pesticide exposure. Novel passive sampling devices (PSDs) were deployed at sites where telemetered frogs were located, then moved to subsequent locations as frogs were radio-tracked. Pesticide concentration in PSDs varied by habitat and was greatest in agricultural fields where frogs were rarely found. Pesticide concentrations in frogs were greatest in spring when frogs were occupying wetlands compared to late summer when frogs occupied terrestrial habitats. Our results indicate that habitat and time of year influence exposure and accumulation of pesticides in amphibians. Our study illustrates the feasibility of quantifying the amphibian exposome to interpret the role of habitat use in pesticide accumulation in frogs to better manage amphibians in agricultural landscapes.
Papers & Reports Beyond the swab: ecosystem sampling to understand the persistence of an amphibian pathogen
Authors: Brittany A Mosher; Kathryn P Huyvaert; Larissa L Bailey
Date: 2018 | Outlet: Oecologia,
Understanding the ecosystem-level persistence of pathogens is essential for predicting
and measuring host-pathogen dynamics. However, this process is often masked, in
part due to a reliance on host-based pathogen detection methods. The amphibian
pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal) are
pathogens of global conservation concern. Despite having free-living life stages, little is
known about the distribution and persistence of these pathogens outside of their
amphibian hosts. We combine historic amphibian monitoring data with contemporary
host- and environment-based pathogen detection data to obtain estimates of Bd
occurrence independent of amphibian host distributions. We also evaluate differences
in filter- and swab-based detection probability and assess inferential differences arising
from using different decision criteria used to classify samples as positive or negative.
Water filtration-based detection probabilities were lower than those from swabs but
were >10%, and swab-based detection probabilities varied seasonally, declining in the
early fall. The decision criterion used to classify samples as positive or negative was
important; using a more liberal criterion yielded higher estimates of Bd occurrence than
when a conservative criterion was used. Different covariates were important when
using the liberal or conservative criterion in modeling Bd detection. We found evidence
of long-term Bd persistence for several years after an amphibian host species of
conservation concern, the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas), was last detected.
Our work provides evidence of long-term Bd persistence in the ecosystem and
underscores the importance of environmental samples for understanding and
mitigating disease-related threats to amphibian biodiversity.
Papers & Reports Prioritizing conserved areas threatened by wildfire for monitoring and management
Authors: J Tracey; Carlton J Rochester; Stacie A Hathaway; Kristine L Preston; A Syphard; A G Vandergast; J Diffendorfer; J Franklin; J MacKenzie; T Oberbauer; S Tremor; C Winchell; Robert N Fisher
Date: 2018-09-07 | Outlet: PLoS ONE
In many parts of the world, the combined effects of habitat fragmentation and altered disturbance regimes pose a significant threat to biodiversity. This is particularly true in Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs), which tend to be fire-prone, species rich, and heavily impacted by human land use. Given the spatial complexity of overlapping threats and species? vulnerability along with limited conservation budgets, methods are needed for prioritizing areas for monitoring and management in these regions. We developed a multi-criteria Pareto ranking methodology for prioritizing spatial units for conservation and applied it to fire threat, habitat fragmentation threat, species richness, and genetic biodiversity criteria in San Diego County, California, USA. We summarized the criteria and Pareto ranking results (from west to east) within the maritime, coastal, transitional, inland climate zones within San Diego County. Fire threat increased from the maritime zone eastward to the transitional zone, then decreased in the mountainous inland climate zone. Number of fires and fire return interval departure were strongly negatively correlated. Fragmentation threats, particularly road density and development density, were highest in the maritime climate zone and declined as we moved eastward and were positively correlated. Species richness criteria showed distributions among climate zones similar to that of the fire threat variables. When using species richness and fire threat criteria, most lower-ranked (higher conservation priority) units occurred in the coastal and transitional zones. When considering genetic biodiversity, lower-ranked units occurred more often in the mountainous inland zone. With Pareto ranking, there is no need to select criteria weights as part of the decision-making process. However, negative correlations and larger numbers of criteria can result in more units assigned to the same rank. Pareto ranking is broadly applicable and can be used as a standalone decision analysis method or in conjunction with other methods.
Papers & Reports Multi-scale effects of land cover and urbanization on the habitat suitability of an endangered toad.
Authors: M Treglia; A Landon; Robert N Fisher; G Kyle; L Fitzgerald
Date: 2018-11-10 | Outlet: Biological Conservation 228:310-318
Habitat degradation, entwined with land cover change, is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Effects of land cover change on species can be direct (when habitat is converted to alternative land cover types) or indirect (when land outside of the species habitat is altered). Hydrologic and ecological connections between terrestrial and aquatic systems are well understood, exemplifying how spatially disparate land cover conditions may influence aquatic habitats, but are rarely examined. We sought to quantify relative effects of land cover at two different but interacting scales on habitat suitability for the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus). Based on an existing distribution model for the arroyo toad and available land cover data, we estimated effects of land cover along streams and within entire watersheds on habitat suitability using structural equation modeling. Relationships between land cover and habitat suitability differed between scales, and broader, watershed-scale conditions influenced land cover along the embedded stream networks. We found anthropogenic development and forest cover at the watershed-scale negatively impacted habitat suitability, but development along stream networks was positively associated with suitability. The positive association between development along streams and habitat suitability may be attributable to increased spatial heterogeneity along urbanized streams, or related factors including policies designed to conserve riparian habitats amidst development. These findings show arroyo toad habitat is influenced by land cover across multiple scales, and can inform conservation of the species. Furthermore, our methodology can help elucidate similar dynamics with other taxa, particularly those reliant on
both terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Papers & Reports Amphibians of the Pacific: natural history and conservation.
Authors: G Zug; Robert N Fisher
Date: 2018 | Outlet: in: Status of Conservation and Decline of Amphibians: Australia, New Zealand and Pacific Islands. Clayton, Vic. CSIRO Publishing.
Endemic anurans occur, with only three exceptions, on the periphery of the Pacific Basin, and only one island group, the Solomon Islands, is a "stepping stone" archipelago that, although lacking past land connections, was nearly connected to a continent or continental islands. This fauna is dominated by species within the family Ceratobatrachidae, all of which have direct development in their eggs, and lack a free living larval stage, an important life-history characteristic when living on variable island habitats where water might be greatly limited. This chapter examines the diversity of native frogs and the current environmental conditions that continue to support the persistence of frog populations and those conditions that push frog populations to local extirpation and eventually to extinction. The non-native (alien) frogs, cane toad, and the diverse anuran fauna of Guam, allow an examination of the physical and biotic environment that permits successful establishment of frogs, and the physiological and behavioural characteristics of successful, invasive species of frogs.
Papers & Reports Setting priorities for private land conservation in fire-prone landscapes: Are fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation competing or compatible objectives?
Authors: A D Syphard; V Butsic; Avi Bar-Massada; J E Keeley; J Tracey; Robert N Fisher
Date: 2016 | Outlet: Ecology and Society 21(3):2.
Although wildfire plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity in many ecosystems, fire management to protect human assets is often carried out by different agencies than those tasked for conserving biodiversity. In fact, fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation are often viewed as competing objectives. Here we explored the role of management through private land conservation and asked whether we could identify private land acquisition strategies that fulfill the mutual objectives of biodiversity conservation and fire risk reduction, or whether the maximization of one objective comes at a detriment to the other. Using a fixed budget and number of homes slated for development, we simulated 20 years of housing growth under alternative conservation selection
strategies, and then projected the mean risk of fires destroying structures and the area and configuration of important habitat types in San Diego County, California, USA. We found clear differences in both fire risk projections and biodiversity impacts based on the way conservation lands are prioritized for selection, but these differences were split between two distinct groupings. If no conservation lands were purchased, or if purchases were prioritized based on cost or likelihood of development, both the projected fire risk and biodiversity impacts were much higher than if conservation lands were purchased in areas with high fire hazard or high species richness. Thus, conserving land focused on either of the two objectives resulted in nearly equivalent mutual benefits for both. These benefits not only resulted from preventing development in sensitive areas, but they were also due to the different housing patterns and arrangements that occurred as development was displaced from those areas. Although biodiversity conflicts may still arise using other fire management strategies, this study shows that mutual objectives can be attained through land-use planning in this region. These results likely generalize to any place where high species richness overlaps with hazardous wildland vegetation.
Papers & Reports Mapping habitat for multiple species in the Desert Southwest.
Authors: R D Inman; K E Nussear; T C Esque; A G Vandergast; Stacie A Hathaway; D A Wood; Kelly R Barr; Robert N Fisher
Date: 2014 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1134, pp. 92
Many utility scale renewable energy projects are currently proposed across the Mojave Ecoregion. Agencies that manage biological resources throughout this region need to understand the potential impacts of these renewable energy projects and their associated infrastructure (for example, transmission corridors, substations, access roads, etc.) on species movement, genetic exchange among
populations, and species’ abilities to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these
factors will help managers select appropriate project sites and possibly mitigate for anticipated effects of management activities. We used species distribution models to map habitat for 15 species across the Mojave Ecoregion to aid regional land-use management planning. Models were developed using a common 1 × 1 kilometer resolution with maximum entropy and generalized additive models. Occurrence data were compiled from multiple sources, including VertNet (, HerpNET (, and MaNIS (, as well as from internal U.S. Geological Survey databases and other biologists. Background data included 20 environmental covariates representing terrain, vegetation, and climate covariates. This report summarizes these environmental covariates and species distribution models used to predict habitat for the 15 species across the Mojave Ecoregion.
Papers & Reports Chapter D. Summary and conclusions.
Authors: R Schroeder; Elizabeth A Gallegos; G Smith; P Martin; Robert N Fisher
Date: 2015 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report pp 97-106
Hydrological and biological investigations were done during 2005 and 2006 in cooperation with the U.S. National Park Service at Darwin Falls in Death Valley National Park, Piute Spring in Mojave National Preserve, and Fortynine Palms Oasis in Joshua Tree National Park where discharge from springs or groundwater seeps sustains rare perennial streams in the otherwise arid environment of the Mojave Desert in which surface water is scarce and usually ephemeral. The study collected data on water quantity (discharge), temperature, water quality, and endemic anuran (frog and toad) populations and their health. In addition, a single survey of endemic anuran populations and their health was completed at Rattlesnake Canyon in the Joshua Tree National Park. Results from this study were compared to historical data, and can provide a baseline for future hydrological and biological investigations to evaluate health and sustainability of the resource as well as its response to changing climate and increases in human use.
Papers & Reports Chapter C. Anuran abundance and health at selected springs in the Mojave network parks.
Authors: Elizabeth A Gallegos; Robert N Fisher
Date: 2015 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report pp. 77-95
Data collected from the biological surveys completed for this study were evaluated to document the reproduction, estimate the population, and assess the overall health of each of the endemic anuran species present at the Darwin Falls, Piute Spring, and Fortynine Palms Oasis study areas. Where available, historical biological data also were evaluated.
Papers & Reports Conservation and recovery of the mountain yellow-legged frog in southern California, USA.
Authors: Adam R Backlin; Elizabeth A Gallegos; Robert N Fisher
Date: 2012 | Outlet: Global Re-introduction perspectives:2011, more case studies from around the globe, Soorae, P.S., ed. Re-introduction specialist Group and Abu Dhabi, UAE: Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi. Gland, Switzerland pp. 77-80
Papers & Reports Chapter 6. Voucher specimens: Appendix C. Field parasitology techniques for reptile surveys.
Authors: S L Gardner; Robert N Fisher; Sean J Berry
Date: 2012 | Outlet: Reptile Biodiversity: Standard Methods of Inventory and Monitoring
Studies of the systematics and ecological characteristics of hosts and their parasites require proper identification of both groups. When the parasites associated with a host are not collected
and preserved properly, species- level diagnostic characters (i.e., morphological characters) are usually destroyed. In addition, improper preservation of parasites severely limits,
or more likely prevents, studies based on DNA from those specimens.