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777 record(s) found.

Papers & Reports Pesticides in Amphibian Habitats of Central and Northern California
Authors: Gary M Fellers; D W Sparling; L L McConnell; Patrick M Kleeman; L Drakeford
Date: 2013-11 | Outlet: Occurence, Fate and Impact of Atmospheric Pollutants on Environmental and Human Health: 123-150
Amphibians in California are facing serious population declines. Contaminants, especially pesticides, have been linked to these declines. This study reports on a survey of central and northern California wetlands sampled along four transects associated with Lassen National Park, Lake Tahoe, Yosemite National Park and Sequoia National Park; each transect was sampled from the coast to the Sierra Nevada mountains. Pacific treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla), water, and sediment were collected from 49 wetlands in 2001 and frogs and sediments were collected from 55 wetlands in 2002. Twenty-three pesticides were found in frog, water, or sediment samples. Eleven contaminants including trifluralin, endosulfan I, chlordanes, trans-nonachlor and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were found in the tissues of adult P. regilla. Seventeen contaminants were found in sediments including endosulfan sulfate, chlordanes, DDE, and chlorpyrifos. The average (SD) number of chemicals detected per pond in sediments was 2.4 (2.5). In water 17 chemicals were detected with endosulfan II being present in almost all samples. Trifluralin, chlordanes, and chlorpyrifos were the next most common. The mean number of chemicals in water per pond was 7.8 (2.9). With the possible exception of chlorpyrifos oxon in sediments and total endosulfans, none of the contaminants by themselves exceeded known lethal or sublethal concentrations. Principal Components Analysis showed that the concentrations of endosulfans, chlorpyrifos, and trifluralin were associated with historic and present day population status of amphibians.
Papers & Reports Population Size, Survival, Growth, and Movements of Rana sierrae
Authors: Gary M Fellers; Patrick M Kleeman; David AW Miller; Brian J Halstead; W A Link
Date: 2013-06 | Outlet: Herpetologica 69:147-162
Based on 2431 captures of 757 individual frogs over a 9-yr period, we found that the population of Rana sierrae in one meadow–stream complex in Yosemite National Park ranged from an estimated 45 to 115 adult frogs. Rana sierrae at our relatively low elevation site (2200 m) grew at a fast rate (K¼0.73–0.78), had high overwintering survival rates (44.6–95%), lived a long time (up to 16 yr), and tended to be fairly sedentary during the summer (100% minimum convex polygon annual home ranges of 139 m2) but had low year-to-year site fidelity. Even though the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) has been present in the population for at least 13 yr, there was no clear downward trend as might be expected from reports of R. sierrae population declines associated with Bd or from reports of widespread population decline of R. sierrae throughout its range.
Papers & Reports Expression analysis and identification of antimicrobial peptide transcripts from six North American frog species
Authors: Laura S Robertson; Gary M Fellers; J M Marranca; Patrick M Kleeman
Date: 2013-06 | Outlet: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 104:225-236
Frogs secrete antimicrobial peptides onto their skin. We describe an assay to preserve and analyze antimicrobial peptide transcripts from field-collected skin secretions that will complement existing methods for peptide analysis. We collected skin secretions from 4 North American species in the field in California and 2 species in the laboratory. Most frogs appeared healthy after release; however, Rana boylii in the Sierra Nevada foothills, but not the Coast Range, showed signs of morbidity and 2 died after handling. The amount of total RNA extracted from skin secretions was higher in R. boylii and R. sierra compared to R. draytonii, and much higher compared to Pseudacris regilla. Interspecies variation in amount of RNA extracted was not explained by size, but for P. regilla it depended upon collection site and date. RNA extracted from skin secretions from frogs handled with bare hands had poor quality compared to frogs handled with gloves or plastic bags. Thirty-four putative antimicrobial peptide precursor transcripts were identified. This study demonstrates that RNA extracted from skin secretions collected in the field is of high quality suitable for use in sequencing or quantitative PCR (qPCR). However, some species do not secrete profusely, resulting in very little extracted RNA. The ability to measure transcript abundance of antimicrobial peptides in field-collected skin secretions complements proteomic analyses and may provide insight into transcriptional mechanisms that could affect peptide abundance.
Papers & Reports Evaluating breeding and metamorph occupancy and vernal pool management effects for wood frogs using a hierarchical model
Authors: Adam W Green; M B Hooten; Evan HC Grant; Larissa L Bailey
Outlet: Journal of Applied Ecology xx:xxx-xxx
1. Worldwide declines in amphibian populations are often attributed to loss of habitat and exploitation; additionally, climate change may play an important role in future declines. Despite protection of habitat, amphibians relying on seasonal habitats, such as vernal pools, may need active management to maintain their populations under forecasts of warming temperatures and more variable precipitation. However, few studies have examined the factors influencing where these species choose to breed (breeding occurrence) and the conditional likelihood of successful metamorphosis.<br />
2. We developed an occupancy model and estimated parameters within a Bayesian framework to investigate the factors influencing probabilities of wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica) breeding and successful metamorphosis at Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, USA. Our objectives were to obtain estimates of breeding occurrence and metamorph occupancy and evaluate the success of current management actions.<br />
3. The probabilities of wood frog breeding and successful metamorphosis varied by year and were positively related to the pond’s typical hydroperiod length and annual precipitation. Contrary to our predictions, previous occupancy states had little effect on breeding and metamorph occupancy probabilities, which is likely due to high correlation of occupancy with hydroperiod. Though sample sizes were small, management actions resulted in an increase in both breeding and metamorph occupancy probabilities.<br />
4. Synthesis and applications. We demonstrate that management actions targeting short-hydroperiod pools favorably influence both components of breeding success. Still, continued monitoring is needed to determine whether managed pools remain suitable for wood frogs. With predicted changes in climate and a positive relationship between <br />
breeding occupancy and winter precipitation, a proactive focus on active management of vernal pools may provide a means to maintain wood frog populations into the future.
Papers & Reports Drought, deluge and declines: the impact of precipitation extremes on amphibians in a changing climate
Authors: Susan C Walls; William J Barichivich; Mary E Brown
Date: 2013-03-11 | Outlet: Biology 2(1):399-418.
The Class Amphibia is one of the most severely impacted taxa in an on-going global biodiversity crisis. Because amphibian reproduction is tightly associated with the presence of water, climatic changes that affect water availability pose a particularly menacing threat to both aquatic and terrestrial-breeding amphibians. We explore the impacts that one facet of climate change – that of extreme variation in precipitation - may have on amphibians. This variation is manifested principally as increases in the incidence and severity of both drought and major storm events. We stress the need to consider not only total precipitation amounts but also the pattern and timing of rainfall events. Such rainfall “pulses” are likely to become increasingly more influential on amphibians, especially in relation to seasonal reproduction. Changes in reproductive phenology can strongly influence the outcome of competitive and predatory interactions, thus potentially altering community dynamics in assemblages of co-existing species. We present conceptual models to illustrate possible landscape and metapopulation consequences of alternative climate change scenarios for pond-breeding amphibians, using the Mole Salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, as an example. Although amphibians have evolved a variety of life history strategies that enable them to cope with environmental uncertainty, it is unclear whether adaptations can keep pace with the escalating rate of climate change. Climate change, especially in combination with other stressors, is a daunting challenge for the persistence of amphibians and, thus, the conservation of global biodiversity.
Papers & Reports Population estimates for the Toiyabe population of Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), 2004-10
Authors: Michael J Adams; Chad Mellison; Stephanie K Galvan
Date: 2013 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1036
The Toiyable subpopulation of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) is located in central Nevada and is part of the Great Basin Distinct Population Segment (DPS). Columbia spotted frogs are of special concern as range-wide population declines have been documented and the species is a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Multiple state and federal agencies have cooperatively monitored this subpopulation over the last seven years, and will continue to do so in the near future. We restructured the database and estimated population parmeters using a Huggins Colosed Captures Robust Design Model. Derived estimates of population size did not show evidence of decline over the study years.
Papers & Reports Integrated monitoring of ecological conditions in wetland-upland landscapes: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3103.
Authors: A L Gallant; W J Sadinski
Date: 2012-07-25 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012–3103, 2 p.
Landscapes of interwoven wetlands and uplands offer a rich set of ecosystem goods and services. Managing lands to maximize ecosystem services requires information that distinguishes change caused by local actions from broader-scale shifts in climate, land use, and other forms of global change. Satellite and airborne sensors collect valuable data for this purpose, especially when the data are analyzed along with data collected from ground-based sensors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is using remote sensing technology in this way as part of the Terrestrial Wetland Global Change Research Network to assess effects of climate change interacting with land-use change and other potential stressors along environmental gradients of wetland-upland landscapes in the United States and Canada.
Papers & Reports Variation in Salinity Tolerance among Larval Anurans: Implications for Community Composition and the Spread of an Invasive, Non-native Species
Authors: Mary E Brown; Susan C Walls
Date: 2013-09 | Outlet: Copeia 2013(3):543-551.
Amphibians in freshwater coastal wetlands periodically experience acute exposure to salinity from hurricane-related overwash events, as well as chronic exposure associated with rising sea levels. In a comparative experimental approach, we examined whether seven species of anuran amphibians vary in their tolerance to changes in salinity. In a laboratory study, we exposed larval Hyla cinerea (Green Treefrog), H. squirella (Squirrel Treefrog), Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog), L. sphenocephalus (Southern Leopard Frog), Anaxyrus terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad) from an inland population in north central Florida, USA, and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog) tadpoles from an inland population in southwest Florida, to acute salinity for 72 h. For each species, we replicated trials in which tadpoles were exposed to salinities of 0.2 (control), 5, 10, 12, 14, and 16 ppt. For all species, tadpoles reared in the control and 5 ppt treatments had 96.7 – 100% survival. No individuals of G. carolinensis survived at salinities exceeding 5 ppt and no individuals of any species survived in the 14 or 16 ppt treatments. For all other native species, survival at 10 ppt ranged from 46.7 to 80%, but declined to 0% at 12 ppt (except for H. cinerea, of which only 3.3% survived at 12 ppt). In contrast, all individuals of the invasive, non-native O. septentrionalis{/I] survived exposure to a salinity of 10 ppt, and survival in this species remained relatively high at 12 ppt. Our results illustrate that the non-native O. septentrionalis has a higher salinity tolerance than the native species tested, which may contribute to its invasion potential. Moreover, species commonly associated with coastal freshwater wetlands differ in their salinity tolerances, suggesting that salt water intrusion due to storm surges and sea level rise may affect the species composition of these ecosystems.
Papers & Reports Evolutionary dynamics of a rapidly receding southern range boundary in the threatened California Red-Legged Frog (Rana draytonii)
Authors: Jonathan Q Richmond; Kelly R Barr; Adam R Backlin; A G Vandergast; Robert N Fisher
Date: 2013-02 | Outlet: Evolutionary Applications doi:10.1111/eva.12067
Populations forming the edge of a species range are often imperiled by isolation and low genetic diversity, with proximity to human population centers being a major determinant of edge stability in modern landscapes. Since the 1960s, the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) has undergone extensive declines in urban-plagued southern California, where the range edge has rapidly contracted northward while shifting its cardinal orientation to an east-west trending axis. We studied the genetic structure and diversity of these front-line populations, tested for signatures of contemporary disturbance, specifically fire, and attempted to disentangle these signals from demographic events extending deeper into the past. Consistent with the genetic expectations of the ‘abundant-center’ model, we found that diversity, admixture and opportunity for random mating increases in populations sampled successively further away from the range boundary. Demographic simulations indicate that bottlenecks in peripheral isolates are associated with processes extending tens to a few hundred generations in the past, despite the demographic collapse of some populations due to recent fire-flood events. While the effects of recent disturbance have left little genetic imprint on these populations, they likely contribute to an extinction debt that will lead to continued range contraction unless management intervenes to stall or reverse the process.
Papers & Reports New distribution record for the rare limpet Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson) (Gastropoda: Acroloxidae) from Montana
Authors: Blake R Hossack; R L Newell
Date: 2013-04 | Outlet: The Nautilus
Papers & Reports Influence of Drought on Salamander Occupancy of Isolated Wetlands on the Southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States
Authors: Susan C Walls; William J Barichivich; Mary E Brown; D E Scott; Blake R Hossack
Date: 2013-03-13 | Outlet: Wetlands 33(2):345-354.
In the southeastern U.S., changes in temperature and precipitation over the last three decades have been the most dramatic in winter and spring seasons. Continuation of these trends could negatively impact pond-breeding amphibians, especially those that rely on winter and spring rains to fill seasonal wetlands, trigger breeding, and ensure reproductive success. From 2009 to 2012, we monitored aquatic stages (larval and paedomorphic, gilled adult) of a winter-breeding amphibian (the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum) and used a single-species, multi-season model to estimate occupancy, detection probability, local colonization and extinction. Annual estimates of occupancy, corrected for imperfect detection, ranged from 9.9 to 23.1%, with the rate of change in occupancy probabilities between sampling seasons fluctuating over time. Our best supported model suggested that this change in occupancy was driven by an increase in estimates of extinction probabilities which, in turn, corresponded with an increase in drought over time. In contrast, colonization was low and less variable. A future climate change scenario of severe, prolonged drought could result in regional losses of seasonal wetlands and a concomitant change in the occupancy dynamics of aquatic amphibians.
Papers & Reports Integrated Watershed-Scale Response to Climate Change for Selected Basins Across the United States
Authors: S Markstrom; L Hay; C D Ward-Garrion; J C Risley; William A Battaglin; David M Bjerklie; K J Chase; D E Christiansen; R W Dudley; R J Hunt; K M Koczot; M C Mastin; R S Regan; R J Viger; K C Vining; J F Walker
Date: 2012-03-16 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5077
A study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the hydrologic response to different projected carbon emission scenarios of the 21st century using a hydrologic simulation model. This study involved five major steps: (1) setup, calibrate and evaluated the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model in 14 basins across the United States by local USGS personnel; (2) acquire selected simulated carbon emission scenarios from the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project; (3) statistical downscaling of these scenarios to create PRMS input files which reflect the future climatic conditions of these scenarios; (4) generate PRMS projections for the carbon emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and (5) analyze the modeled hydrologic response. This report presents an overview of this study, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results.<br />
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A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the carbon emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations.
Papers & Reports Analysis of the herbicide diuron, three diuron degradates, and six neonicotinoid insecticides in water- Method details and application to two Georgia Streams
Authors: Michelle L Hladik; Daniel L Calhoun
Date: 2012-10-05 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5206
A method for the determination of the widely used herbicide diuron, three degradates of diuron, and six neonicotinoid insecticides in environmental water samples is described. Filtered water samples were extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with no additional cleanup steps. Quantification of the pesticides from the extracted water samples was done by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS).<br />
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Recoveries in test water samples fortified at 20 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for each compound ranged from 75 to 97 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 5 to 10 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs) in water ranged from 3.0 to 6.2 ng/L using LC/MS/MS. The method was applied to water samples from two streams in Georgia, Sope Creek and the Chattahoochee River. Diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) were detected in 100 and 80 percent, respectively, of the samples from the Chattahoochee River, whereas Sope creek had detection frequencies of 15 percent for diuron and 31 percent for 3,4-DCA. Detection frequencies for the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, were 60 percent for the Chattahoochee River and 85 percent for Sope Creek. Field matrix-spike recoveries for each compound, when averaged over four water samples, ranged from 79 to 100 percent. The average percentage difference between replicate pairs for all compounds detected in the field samples was 10.1 (± 4.5) percent.
Papers & Reports Simulating the Potential Effects of Climate Change in Two Colorado Basins and at Two Colorado Ski Areas
Authors: William A Battaglin; L Hay; S Markstrom
Date: 2011-01-28 | Outlet: Earth Interactions 15(22): 1-23
The mountainous areas of Colorado are used for tourism and recreation, and they provide water storage and supply for municipalities, industries, and agriculture. Recent studies suggest that water supply and tourist industries such as skiing are at risk from climate change. In this study, a distributed-parameter watershed model, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), is used to identify the potential effects of future climate on hydrologic conditions for two Colorado basins, the East River at Almont and the Yampa River at Steamboat Springs, and at the subbasin scale for two ski areas within those basins.<br />
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Climate-change input files for PRMS were generated by modifying daily PRMS precipitation and temperature inputs with mean monthly climate-change fields of precipitation and temperature derived from five general circulation model (GCM) simulations using one current and three future carbon emission scenarios. All GCM simulations of mean daily minimum and maximum air temperature for the East and Yampa River basins indicate a relatively steady increase of up to several degrees Celsius from baseline conditions by 2094. GCM simulations of precipitation in the two basins indicate little change or trend in precipitation, but there is a large range associated with these projections. PRMS projections of basin mean daily streamflow vary by scenario but indicate a central tendency toward slight decreases, with a large range associated with these projections.<br />
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Decreases in water content or changes in the spatial extent of snowpack in the East and Yampa River basins are important because of potential adverse effects on water supply and recreational activities. PRMS projections of each future scenario indicate a central tendency for decreases in basin mean snow-covered area and snowpack water equivalent, with the range in the projected decreases increasing with time. However, when examined on a monthly basis, the projected decreases are most dramatic during fall and spring. Presumably, ski area locations are picked because of a tendency to receive snow and keep snowpack relative to the surrounding area. This effect of ski area location within the basin was examined by comparing projections of March snow-covered area and snowpack water equivalent for the entire basin with more local projections for the portion of the basin that represents the ski area in the PRMS models. These projections indicate a steady decrease in March snow-covered area for the basins but only small changes in March snow-covered area at both ski areas for the three future scenarios until around 2050. After 2050, larger decreases are possible, but there is a large range in the projections of future scenarios. The rates of decrease for snowpack water equivalent and precipitation that falls as snow are similar at the basin and subbasin scale in both basins. Results from this modeling effort show that there is a wide range of possible outcomes for future snowpack conditions in Colorado. The results also highlight the differences between projections for entire basins and projections for local areas or subbasins within those basins.
Papers & Reports Occurrence of Pesticides in Water and Sediment Collected from Amphibian Habitats Located Throughout the United States, 2009-2010
Authors: Kelly L Smalling; J L Orlando; Daniel L Calhoun; William A Battaglin; Kathryn M Kuivila
Date: 2012-08-22 | Outlet: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 707
Water and bed-sediment samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 and 2010 from 11 sites within California and 18 sites total in Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, and Oregon, and were analyzed for a suite of pesticides by the USGS. Water samples and bed-sediment samples were collected from perennial or seasonal ponds located in amphibian habitats in conjunction with research conducted by the USGS Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative and the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. Sites selected for this study in three of the states (California, Colorado, and Orgeon) have no direct pesticide application and are considered undeveloped and remote. Sites selected in Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, and Maine were in close proximity to either agricultural or suburban areas. Water and sediment samples were collected once in 2009 during amphibian breeding seasons. In 2010, water samples were collected twice. The first sampling event coincided with the beginning of the frog breeding season for the species of interest, and the second event occurred 10–12 weeks later when pesticides were being applied to the surrounding areas. Additionally, water was collected during each sampling event to measure dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has been linked to amphibian declines worldwide. Bed-sediment samples were collected once during the beginning of the frog breeding season, when the amphibians are thought to be most at risk to pesticides. Results of this study are reported for the following two geographic scales: (1) for a national scale, by using data from the 29 sites that were sampled from seven states, and (2) for California, by using data from the 11 sampled sites in that state.<br />
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Water samples were analyzed for 96 pesticides by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 24 pesticides were detected in one or more of the 54 water samples, including 7 fungicides, 10 herbicides, 4 insecticides, 1 synergist, and 2 pesticide degradates. On a national scale, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the primary degradate of the herbicide glyphosate, which is the active ingredient in Roundup®, was the most frequently detected pesticide in water (16 of 54 samples) followed by glyphosate (8 of 54 samples). The maximum number of pesticides observed at a single site was nine compounds in a water sample from a site in Louisiana. The maximum concentration of a pesticide or degradate observed in water was 2,880 nanograms per liter of clomazone (a herbicide) at a site in Louisiana. In California, a total of eight pesticides were detected among all of the low and high elevation sites; AMPA was the most frequently detected pesticide, but glyphosate was detected at the highest concentrations (1.1 micrograms per liter).<br />
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Bed-sediment samples were analyzed for 94 pesticides by using accelerated solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography for sulfur removal, and carbon/alumina stacked solid-phase extraction cartridges to remove interfering sediment matrices. In bed sediment, 22 pesticides were detected in one or more of the samples, including 9 fungicides, 3 pyrethroid insecticides, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p’-DDT) and its major degradates, as well as several herbicides. Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, and bifenthrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, were detected most frequently. Maximum pesticide concentrations ranged from less than their respective method detection limits to 1,380 micrograms per kilogram (tebuconazole in California). The number of pesticides detected in samples from each site ranged from zero to six compounds. The sites with the greatest number of pesticides were in Maine and Oregon with six pesticides detected in one sample from each state, followed by Georgia with four pesticides in one sample. For California, a total of 10 pesticides were detected among all sites, and 4 pesticides were detected at both low and high elevation sites; tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin were the two most frequently detected pesticides in California. For the other six selected states, the most frequently detected pesticides in bed sediment were pyraclostrobin (detected in 17 of 42 samples), bifenthrin (detected in 14 of 42 samples), and tebuconazole (detected in 10 of 42 samples).<br />
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The fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), was detected in water samples in sites from four of the seven states during 2009 and 2010, and the number of zoospore equivalents per liter of water in samples where Bd was detected ranged from 1.6 to 343. Bd was not detected in water samples from sites in Georgia, Louisiana, and Oregon.
Papers & Reports Occurrence of Azoxystrobin, Propiconazole, and Selected other Fungicides in US Streams, 2005-2006
Authors: William A Battaglin; M W Sandstrom; Kathryn M Kuivila; D W Kolpin; M T Meyer
Date: 2011-02-01 | Outlet: Water Air and Soil Pollution 218:307-322
This study documents the occurrence of fungicides in select U.S. streams soon after the first documentation of soybean rust in the U.S. and prior to the corresponding increase in fungicide use to treat this problem. Water samples were collected from 29 streams in 13 States in 2005 and/or 2006, and analyzed for 12 target fungicides. Nine of the 12 fungicides were detected in at least one stream sample and at least one fungicide was detected in 20 of 29 streams. At least one fungicide was detected in 56% of the 103 samples, as many as 5 fungicides were detected in an individual sample, and mixtures of fungicides were common. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (45% of 103 samples) followed by metalaxyl (27%), propiconazole (17%), myclobutanil (9%), and tebuconazole (6%). Fungicide detections ranged from https://0.002 to https://1.15 ug/L. There was indication of a seasonal pattern to fungicide occurrence, with detections more common and concentrations higher in late summer and early fall than in spring. At a few sites, fungicides were detected in all samples collected suggesting the potential for season-long occurrence in some streams. Fungicide occurrence appears to be related to fungicide use in the associated drainage basins, however, current use information is generally lacking and more detailed occurrence data are needed to accurately quantify such a relation. Maximum concentrations of fungicides were typically one or more orders of magnitude less than current toxicity estimates for fresh-water aquatic organisms or humans however gaps in current toxicological understandings of the effects of fungicides in the environment limit these interpretations.
Papers & Reports The state of the amphibians in the United States
Authors: Erin L Muths; Michael J Adams; Lianne Ball; Evan HC Grant; P S Corn
More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.
Papers & Reports Factors Influencing Survival and Mark Retention in Postmetamorphic Boreal Chorus
Authors: J E Swanson; Larissa L Bailey; Erin L Muths; W C Funk
Date: 2013 | Outlet: Copeia
The ability to track individual animals is crucial in many field studies and often requires applying marks to captured individuals. Toe clipping has historically been a standard marking method for wild amphibian populations, but more recent marking methods include visual implant elastomer and photo identification. Unfortunately, few studies have investigated the influence and effectiveness of marking methods for recently metamorphosed individuals and as a result little is known about this life-history phase for most amphibians. Our focus was to explore survival probabilities and mark retention and migration in postmetamorphic Boreal Chorus Frogs (Psuedacris maculata) in a laboratory setting. Three treatments were assigned randomly among 147 individuals: frogs were either marked with visual implant elastomer, toe clipped, or left unmarked as controls. Growth and mortality were recorded for one year and resulting data were analyzed using known-fate models in Program MARK. Model selection results suggested that survival probabilities of frogs varied with time and showed some variation among marking treatments. We found that frogs with multiple toes clipped on the same foot had lower survival probabilities than individuals in other treatments, but individuals can be marked by clipping a single toe on two different feet without any mark loss or negative survival effects. Individuals treated with visual implant elastomer had a mark migration rate of 4% and mark loss rate of 6% and also showed very little negative survival impacts relative to control individuals.
Papers & Reports The precarious persistence of the endangered Sierra Madre yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) in southern California
Authors: Adam R Backlin; C J Hitchcock; Elizabeth A Gallegos; J L Yee; Robert N Fisher
Date: 2013 | Outlet: Oryx - International Journal of Conservation (in press)
We conducted surveys for the endangered Sierra Madre yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) throughout southern California to evaluate their current distribution and status. Surveys were conducted between 2000 and 2009 at 150 unique streams and lakes within the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and Palomar mountains of southern California. Of the 150 survey locations only nine small, geographically isolated, populations were detected across the four mountain ranges. The nine R. muscosa populations all tested positive for the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Our data show that when R. muscosa is known to be present, it is highly detectable (89%) from a single visit during the frogs active season. We estimate there were only 166 adult frogs that remained in the wild in 2009. From our research, it appears that R. muscosa populations in southern California are extremely vulnerable to natural and stochastic events and may become extirpated in the near future without intervention.
Papers & Reports Stream water temperature limits occupancy of salamanders in mid-Atlantic protected areas
Authors: Evan HC Grant; A N Wiewel; Karen C Rice
Date: 2012 | Outlet: Journal of Herpetology xx:xxx-xxx
Stream ecosystems are particularly sensitive to urbanization, and tolerance of water-quality parameters is likely important to population persistence of stream salamanders. When combined with climate change forecasts, significant changes in stream flow, chemical composition, and temperature of streams are expected in coming decades. Protected areas where landscape alterations are minimized will therefore become increasingly important for salamander populations. We surveyed 29 streams at three National Parks in the highly urbanized greater metropolitan area of Washington, D.C. We investigated relationships between water-quality variables and occupancy of three species of stream salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus, Eurycea bislineata, and Pseudotriton ruber). Using a set of site-occupancy models, and accounting for imperfect detection, we found that stream water temperature limits salamander occupancy. There was substantial uncertainty about the effects of the other water-quality variables, although both specific conductance (SC) and pH were included in competitive models. Our estimates of occupancy suggest that temperature, SC, and pH have some importance in structuring stream salamander distribution. When climate and landscape changes are joint stressors on a population, the interactive effects of increased temperatures under urbanization and climate change may drive local extinctions.